The first thing you need to know is that Face ID is not just comparing your face with a normal photograph. When you first set up the authentication method, your iPhone X actually draws a complex three-dimensional map of your face using infrared technology.
The components of Apple’s Face ID hardware in the iPhone X
As noted KGI Securities analyst Ming-Chi Kuo predicted, Apple announced that the Face ID technology uses a multiple-component array to gather the images for this array and then compare them to the authenticated model later on. There is an infrared camera, flood illuminator, proximity sensor, ambient light sensor, front camera, and dot projector utilized to authenticate your face.
The use of light in the infrared spectrum allows the system to work in the dark or in light. It allows the system to collect depth information, even ignoring such obstacles as facial hair and eyeglasses, providing an accurate model to use in authenticating the owner of the iOS device.
After you’ve set up Face ID, the iPhone X uses all of these components together to ensure your face is in the optimal position for authentication. You have to be looking at your iPhone for the Face ID technology to work, and everything is stored in the secure enclave.
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